ocp_logo Step By Step Instructions on Installing Oracle 10g R2 32-bit ( on  RedHat 4 x86 / RedHat AS3 x86 / CentOS 4 x86, CentOS 3 x86
By Bhavin Hingu


Task List:

Pre-Installation Task:

Installing Required rpm (Packages)
Memory and Swap Space
Kernel Parameter
Creating oracle User account
Setting Shell limits for the oracle user
Creating Oracle Software Directories
Setting up oracle User account

Obtaining Oracle 10g 32-bit Software for Redhat Linux x86

Installation Task:

Installing Oracle 10g Software

Post-Installation Task:

Creating Backup of the root.sh
Updating .bash_profile
Creating database Using following Storage Options
Automatic Storage Management (ASM) Option
RawDevice Option
File System Option
Configuring new or Upgraded database

  NOTE: Installing Oracle 10g on RedHat EL4 works same way as that of on Cent OS 4.
Installing Oracle 10g on RedHat EL3 works same way as that of on Cent OS 3.

Installing CentOS:

If you do not have CentOS installed on your pc, goto www.centos.org and download the appropriate isos. You can use below
command to copy iso file on the CD from Linux command line I use scanbus option of cdrecord utility to locate the device id

which is used to write data on.

[root@shree ~]# cdrecord -scanbus
Cdrecord-Clone 2.01-dvd (i686-pc-linux-gnu) Copyright (C) 1995-2004 Jörg Schilling
Note: This version is an unofficial (modified) version with DVD support
Note: and therefore may have bugs that are not present in the original.
Note: Please send bug reports or support requests to http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla
Note: The author of cdrecord should not be bothered with problems in this version.
scsidev: 'ATA'
devname: 'ATA'
scsibus: -2 target: -2 lun: -2
Linux sg driver version: 3.5.27
Using libscg version 'schily-0.8'.
cdrecord: Warning: using inofficial libscg transport code version (schily - Red Hat-scsi-linux-sg.c-1.83-RH '@(#)scsilinux-sg.c 1.83 04/05/20 Copyright 1997 J. Schilling').
1,0,0 100) 'TOSHIBA ' 'DVD-ROM SD-M1502' '1012' Removable CD-ROM

1,1,0 101) 'SONY ' 'CD-RW CRX140E ' 'A1.0' Removable CD-ROM
1,2,0 102) *
1,3,0 103) *
1,4,0 104) *
1,5,0 105) *
1,6,0 106) *
1,7,0 107) *
[root@shree ~]# cdrecord –v –pad speed=4 dev=1,1,0 /path/to/iso/file.iso

Please goto www.centos.org to get detailed information on installing CentOS.


Before you start installing Oracle10g software, please make sure that you have the below packages installed on your Linux box,

        else you will get error(s) during the installation process.

Please execute the below comand as root to make sure that you have this rpms installed. If not installed, then download them
from appropriate linux site.

rpm -q glibc glibc-common gcc gcc-c++ libstdc++ libstdc++-devel libaio \
       binutils make compat-db gnome-libs pdksh sysstat

For Redhat EL3/CentOS 3, you need the below rpms.
rpm -q make gcc glibc compat-db compat-gcc compat-gcc-c++ compat-libstdc++ \
     compat-libstdc++-devel openmotif21 setarch libaio \

Memory and swap Space:

Oracle Documents says that you need at least 512MB of memory and 1024MB of swap space (Double the size of memory if you have
RAM larger than 2 gigs) to run Oracle  (9i and above)  Database on Linux. Well, I have managed to successfully run one 9i and 2
10g instances (one ASM and one regular) simultaneously on a single linux box with 512 MB of memory. You simply need to adjust
the init.ora memory parameter for that

[root@shree ~]# cat /proc/meminfo | grep Total
MemTotal: 515768 kB
HighTotal: 0 kB
LowTotal: 515768 kB
SwapTotal: 4192956 kB
VmallocTotal: 499704 kB

If you do not have enough Swap Space, you can add extra temporary swap space.

[root@shree ~]# df
Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/hda5 40662492 5226432 33370508 14% /
none 257884 0 257884 0% /dev/shm
/dev/hdb1 9621848 3341000 5792072 37% /backup
[root@shree ~]# mkdir /swap
[root@shree ~]# cd /swap
[root@shree swap]# dd if=/dev/zero of=extraSwap bs=1024 count=128000
128000+0 records in
128000+0 records out
[root@shree swap]# chmod 600 extraSwap
[root@shree swap]# ls -l extr*
-rw------- 1 root root 131072000 Nov 28 14:16 extraSwap
[root@shree swap]# mkswap extraSwap
Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 131067 kB
[root@shree swap]# swapon extraSwap
[root@shree swap]# swapoff extraSwap

Kernel Parameters:

Oracle recommends that you set shared memory segment attributes as well as semaphores to the following values.
If not set, database instance creation will fail. I added the following lines to /etc/sysctl.conf file. Every OS process needs
semaphore where It waits on for the resources. For more on semaphore, please read the UNIX os documents.

 NOTE: If the current value for any parameter is higher than the value listed in this table, then do not change
              the value of that parameter.

                   To see the current setting in the kernel, please use the below command.

/sbin/sysctl -a | grep sem      -- for semmsl, semmns, semopm, semmni
/sbin/sysctl -a | grep shm      -- for
shmall, shmmax, shmmni
/sbin/sysctl -a | grep file-max

/sbin/sysctl -a | grep
/sbin/sysctl -a | grep rmem_default

Please add/change the appropriate variables value in the /etc/sysctl.conf file as shown below.

net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0
net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1
net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0
kernel.sysrq = 0
kernel.core_uses_pid = 1
kernel.shmmax = 2147483648
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
fs.file-max = 65536
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65000
net.core.rmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.rmem_max = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 262144

After adding these lines to /etc/sysctl.conf, please run the below command as root to make them enabled.

[root@shree ~]# sysctl -p
                   Creating oracle OS User Account:

You need OS “oracle” user account created which owns the Oracle software. Oracle Software installation
needs to be proceeds by this account. Oracle software installation (without Companion CD) requires 2.5 GB
of free space available for the ORACLE_BASE directory. Please make sure that the mount point where you

        plan to install Software has required free space available. You can use “df –k” to check this out.

[root@shree ~]# df -k

Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/hda5 40662492 5345128 33251812 14% /
none 257884 0 257884 0% /dev/shm
/dev/hdb1 9621848 3344928 5788144 37% /backup
I had about 33GB of free space available on “/” mount point. So I decided to install Oracle under this
mount point.

groupadd dba
groupadd oinstall
useradd -g oinstall -G dba oracle
passwd oracle

You do not need oinstall group if you are not installing on the production server or you (or your team) are the
only person
responsible for future installations/upgrades of Oracle Software.

Setting Shell Limits for the Oracle User:

To improve the performance of the software on Linux systems, you must increase the following shell limits
 for the
oracle user:

Add the following lines to the /etc/security/limits.conf file:

            oracle soft nproc 2047
            oracle hard nproc 16384
            oracle soft nofile 1024
            oracle hard nofile 65536

Add or edit the following line in the /etc/pam.d/login file, if it does not already exist:

                session required /lib/security/pam_limits.so

For the Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell,  add the following lines to the /etc/profile:

        if [ $USER = "oracle" ]; then
           if [ $SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ]; then
              ulimit -p 16384
              ulimit -n 65536
              ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536


For the C shell (csh or tcsh), add the following lines to the /etc/csh.login.

       if ( $USER == "oracle" ) then
          limit maxproc 16384
          limit descriptors 65536


Creating Oracle Software Directories:

Asp per OFA, oracle base directory has the path: /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner where,
mount_point is the mount point directory for the file system that will contain the Oracle software. I have used
                     /u01 for the mount point directory. However, you could choose another mount point directory,
                     such as
/oracle or /opt/oracle.

        oracle_sw_owner is the operating system user name of the Oracle software owner, for example oracle.

[root@shree ~]# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle
[root@shree ~]# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
[root@shree ~]# mkdir -p /u02/oradata/db102
[root@shree ~]# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u02/oradata/db102
[root@shree ~]# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oracle
[root@shree ~]# chmod -R 775 /u02/oradata/db102

 Setup Oracle User Account:

If you have more than one Oracle software installed on the machine, then you might want to create .bash_profile
for each oracle home. For e.g, I have two oracle software installed on my machine. I have created .bash_profile9i
for my 9i server and .bash_profile10g for my 10g server. I leave .bash_profile to its default. If you are going to
install Only 10g, then no need to create extra .bash_profiles.

Add the below lines into the .bash_profile file. DO NOT include the ORACLE_HOME variable.
We will add it once the software is installed.

export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app
export ORACEL_SID=db10

At this point you are ready to start Installing Oracle 10g.

Obtaining Oracle 10g Software:

Goto otn.oracle.com and download the appropriate Oracle 10g Software into the /tmp. Make Sure You have enough
space under this mount point. You can check this using df command. I downloaded 10201_database_linux32.zip
file for my 32-bit Linux box. If you just want to create single instance database, you do not need to download
clusterware. Also You do not need companion cd if you do not want to have HTML DB installed. This file comes with
a .zip extension which needs to be unzipped using the unzip utility which is installed as part of CentOS. Incase you
do not have one; you can get it from
here. After Unzipping this file, you can optionally write them on the CD. I
generally prefer cdrecord command.

I used a CD media of 700MB capacity and 10g ( was copied successfully.

[root@shree ~]# unzip /tmp/0201_database_linux32.zip
[root@shree ~]# mkisofs -r /tmp/databases | cdrecord -v dev=1,1,0 speed=20 - 

If you are installing the software from disc, mount the first disc if it is not already mounted. Some platforms automatically mount the disc when you insert the disc into the drive. Wherever you store software, you “cd” to that directory.

I usually copy the software on the CD as mentioned above.

        Installation Process of Oracle 10g Software

[root@shree ~]# xhost +
access control disabled, clients can connect from any host
[root@shree ~]# mount /media/cdrom
[root@shree root]# mount /mnt/cdrom -- Incase of RedHat EL3

[root@shree ~]# su - oracle
[oracle@shree ~]$ echo $ORACLE_BASE
[oracle@shree ~]$ echo $ORACLE_SID
[oracle@shree ~]$ /media/cdrom/runInstaller

Installing Oracle 10g Software:

Follow these steps to install Oracle 10g software.

Post-Installation Task

Creating Backup of the root.sh:

Oracle recommends that you back up the root.sh script after you complete an installation. If you install other products
in the same Oracle home directory, then Oracle Universal Installer updates the contents of the existing
root.sh script
during the installation. If you require information contained in the original
root.sh script, then you can recover it from
the backed up
root.sh file.

Updating .bash_profile:

Now .bash_profile needs to be updated with the value of ORACLE_HOME, path and LD_LIBRARY_PATH.

export ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1

Creating Database Using Different Storage Options:

File system
Automatic Storage Management (ASM)
Raw devices             

NOTE: Database files are supported on file systems, Automatic Storage Management, and raw devices. Recovery
            files are supported only on file systems and  Automatic Storage Management

Configuring New or Upgraded Databases:

Oracle recommends that you run the utlrp.sql script after creating or upgrading a database to recompile all
PL/SQL modules that might be in an invalid state, including packages, procedures, and types. This is an optional
step but Oracle recommends that you do it during installation and not at a later date.



Oracle Documents